Synchlora aerata (camouflaged looper)

Back in mid-June I discovered a number of Synchlora aerata (camouflaged looper, wavy-lined emerald moth) that were using our coreopsis as host. Not only are these spectacular adult moths in the family Geometridae, but they are obviously special while in the larval phase as well. These caterpillars are known for attaching bits and pieces of the plant tissues they feed on (often flower petals) to their backs as means of camouflaging against their predators.

The Synchlora aerata, on Coreopsis sp. in a suburban wildflower garden in St. Louis County, MO, USA
I often find these guys with their camouflage dull, dry and not very attractive. You can change this pretty easily by placing them in a container with a fresh native flower of your choice. Hopefully within a day or two the caterpillar will have adorned itself with a fresh and colorful coat!

From the Home Garden – Callirhoe bushii (Bush’s poppy mallow)

Photographed on June 11th of this year. I chose this species of Callirhoe because it is the most likely to stay small and behave in the front yard beds. However, I fear that the primarily clay soils will get the worst of it and it won’t stick around long. Of the three plants, only one made it to flower. These guys are adapted to more xeric and well-draining soils.

Leaf and flower of Callirhoe bushii (Malvaceae)

A Lizard Beetle

The Languria bicolor (Erotylidae) is placed in the tribe Languriini (lizard beetles). Larvae of lizard beetles develop within the stems of plants and adults feed on the tissues and pollen of the same or nearby plants. This individual was found in July 2021 at the Beaumont Scout Reservation, St. Louis County, Missouri.

Small Carpenter Bee (Ceratina sp.)

Here we have a few shots of a small carpenter bee that was very cooperative this past April at Beckemeier Conservation Area as it nectared from a spring beauty blossom. This is one of the bees that nests and overwinters in old broken pithy stems that it excavates. So here is who you might be helping by leaving your dead stems sit through the winter.

The Beardtongues?

Here is a genus that I find interesting. The Penstemon is made up of approximately 270 species and is the largest genus of flowering plants that are endemic to North America. Now classified in the plantain family (Plantaginaceae), this is a very diverse genus found across a variety of habitats and altitudes. Most species should be readily identified as a Penstemon due to their unique flower morphology. The corolla is a fused tube, comprised of five petals that can be identified as lobes in a two on top, three on the bottom configuration. Inside the corolla you will find two pairs of stamens with anthers pushed towards the top of the open mouth. In between the fertile stamens is a staminode that lies towards the bottom of the tube. This sterile modified stamen usually ends in a brush-like structure. This is the eponymous “beardtongue”. The generic name, Penstemon, meaning “stamen-like”, also refers to this staminode.

I got to meet four species of Penstemon in bloom this year – two of which I planted in the garden. I was happy to see them bloom in their first season.

Penstemon pallidus (pale penstemon) from my front garden in St. Louis Co., MO.
A closeup of Penstemon pallidus flowers. Note the yellow beard (staminode) that is thought to aid in pollination by pushing hymenopteran pollinators towards the stigma and anthers located at the top of the corolla tube. Also note the dark nectar guides that point towards the back of the tube.
Penstemon digitalis (foxglove beardtongue) is the most common and least particular member of the genus in eastern Missouri. These plants were found in a field at Beckemeier Conservation Area in St. Louis County.
The flowers of Penstemon digitalis are mostly white in color and have a relatively long blooming period compared to other local members of the genus.
Penstemon tubaeflorus is a showy white penstemon that is found primarily in the southwestern quadrant in Missouri. These photos were taken at Tingler Prairie Natural Area near West Plains, MO.
Here you can see why this species gets its common name of ‘trumpet beardtongue.’
The large and showy flowers of Penstemon cobaea (prairie beardtongue). These were photographed from the author’s front garden in St. Louis Co., MO.
I used focus stacking to capture the details in the flower of this Penstemon cobaea (prairie beardtongue). Note the two pairs of stamens that wrap around the inside of the corolla and present their pollen-filled anthers at the top. The stiff brush-like beard of the staminode pushes would-be pollinators towards these reproductive organs.

-OZB

Those Lovely Spiderworts

Casey and I ran into a number of spiderworts in forests, glades and prairies across Arkansas and southern Missouri during our trip in May. Although Casey did his best in identifying the plants as we came across them, my field note taking can often leave a lot to be desired and I didn’t record which photo was which plant. With approximately ten species of Tradescantia in this geography plus a few known hybrid situations as well as multiple flower colors possible in some species, identifying these just by closeup photos of the flowers would be challenging even for the experienced botanist. So, I am satisfied just to focus on the forms, colors and insect interactions of these flowers as seen in these photos.

This has me thinking about the possibility of sending in my 5D mk iv into Canon to have the conversion that enables voice notes recording. I used this a couple times when I had the 1D mk iv and think it would be useful during these trips where we are hurrying from plant to plant and location to location and I realize I left my pen and notebook in the car or at home, or am simply to lazy too use them.

Helenium virginicum (Virginia Sneezeweed)

The Virginia Sneezeweed is a Missouri state endangered and federally threatened species of Helenium, first discovered outside of Virginia, by our own Julian Steyermark. I photographed these in August, 2020 at Tingler Prairie N.A. I encourage you to read this great article by Bridget Macdonald to read more of the story of this plant.

Through extensive searching and reintroduction efforts, there are now more than 60 known populations of Helenium virginicum (Virginia Sneezeweed) found in Missouri.

Swamp Metalmark (Calephelis muticum) – Larvae

I previously shared photos of adult of swamp metalmark (Calephelis muticum). This spring, after a couple or three years of looking for them on their host plant, Cirsium muticum (swamp thistle), I finally found the caterpillar of this vulnerable species of conservation concern.

A swamp metalmark (Calephelis muticum) caught shortly after depositing some frass created from its host plant, Cirsium muticum (swamp thistle).

Astranthium ciliatum (Western Daisy)

This fantastic little one is the western daisy (Astranthium ciliatum) that we found at Middle Fork Barrens Natural Area. In the xeric, shallow soils of the barrens this daisy was single-stemmed and and no more than 6″ off the ground. If only they would behave like this in the home garden! Their range is centered in Oklahoma and Arkansas although they can be found in southwestern Missouri. These were beautiful little plants and rank up with my favorites in the family.

Astranthium ciliatum, or western daisy, is a spring-blooming member of the Asteraceae.