Snow Raptors

A few from a couple snow days this past January. Some of the first outings with the Canon R5. On one day, light levels were quite low and birds were at a great distance. Tried shooting with and without teleconverter to get more light. Difficult circumstances.

Short-eared Owl cruising over snow-covered grassland.
Settings: 700mm focal length, 1/2000 sec., f/5.6, ISO-3200.
Short-eared Owl shortly after leaving perch.
Settings: 700mm focal length, 1/2000 sec., f/5.6, ISO-2500.
Short-eared Owl with prey.
Settings: 500mm focal length, 1/800 sec., f/4, ISO-2000.
Male Northern Harrier
Settings: 700mm focal length, 1/2000 sec., f/5.6, ISO-2000.
Female Northern Harrier with prey.
Settings: 500mm focal length, 1/2000 sec., f/4, ISO-3200.
Northern Harrier and Short-eared Owl
Settings: 500mm focal length, 1/2000 sec., f/4, ISO-3200.
Squabbling Short-eared Owl and Northern Harrier
Settings: 500mm focal length, 1/2000 sec., f/4, ISO-3200.
Whenever a Short-eared Owl tried and missed its intended prey, it would immediately shake the snow and other materials from its talons.
Settings: 700mm focal length, 1/2500 sec., f/5.6, ISO-1000.
Short-eared Owl skimming snowy landscape.
Settings: 700mm focal length, 1/2500 sec., f/5.6, ISO-1000.
A great catch!
Settings: 700mm focal length, 1/2000 sec., f/5.6, ISO-1600.

Ozark Bill

“Raptors” of 2021/2022 Winter Season

I know that at least one of these birds pushes the definition of a raptor a little far, but, there is no denying that each of the birds featured in this post is a truly horrific predator if your are unfortunate enough to be considered their prey. It’s been a lot of fun this season shooting these birds. I get out as much as I reasonably can and although it looks like the season is turning over, I’ll have a lot more photos of these birds to share in the following weeks.

The smallest on this short list, the American Kestrel feeds primarily on small rodents and birds during winter months. During warmer times of the year, Kestrels will include arthropods and reptiles in their diets.
Anyone who has spent any time on grasslands, marshes or other flat rural areas will know the distinct shape of the ubiquitous Northern Harrier. These low-flying raptors are the scourge of rodents trying to make their living among dead winter vegetation. In rough times, they will also kill and eat birds, including members of their own species.
The Short-eared Owl should already be pretty well known to anyone that has recently visited this blog. They are terrific predators, combining keen eyesight, hearing and the ability to fly completely silent while performing aerial acrobatics. This bird is on its way to attempt a prey capture.
This was an irruption season for the Rough-legged Hawk. Many more birds than typically seen have been observed in eastern Missouri including this very cooperative female that was photographed in St. Charles County, MO. These birds, along with Short-eared Owls, have already begun moving north towards their summer habitats.
Sure, the American White Pelican is not typically lumped in with the Raptors, but I thought this photo conveyed the ferocity that this predator can use to catch its fish prey. This is another great winter photography subject.
Finally we have the Bald Eagle. We tried a few times this season along the great Mississippi River to photograph these guys pulling stunned fish from the waters. We had some success, but unfortunately, we did not have a long enough deep freeze to bring them down river in the concentrations that photographers dream about.

That is all for tonight. I will hopefully have more photos of these species to share soon.

-Ozark Bill

Short-eared Owls – In Flight and Notes About their Vocalizations

Another thing that makes Short-eared Owls so fascinating to observe is their vocalizations. These birds make sounds in a variety of ways. First, is their primary “hoot”. I have never heard this in person because this is primarily used by males in advertising for mates and establishing territories in the nesting season. You can, however, hear the barks and screams given by both males and females on their wintering grounds. The screams seem to be primarily given while in flight and the barks can be given in flight or while perched. I do not know the purposes of these two call types but will put this on my list to research. Another sound these birds deliver is the wing clap. This seems to be primarily used by males in their courtship flights and I have not observed this yet in Missouri.

Short-eared Owl vs. Northern Harrier – A Case of Kleptoparasitism

Miguel and I watched as this SEOW returned to a favorite perch after just catching a vole. It wasn’t quick enough to ingest its catch and the NOHA is coming up behind to take advantage of this.

I would love to know how many thousands of years this struggle has been going on. The Short-eared Owl (SEOW) and Northern Harrier (NOHA) are separated genetically by millions of years, currently existing in separate orders. The SEOW belongs to the Strigiformes and the NOHA falls within the Accipitriformes. However, they have evolved to have similar lifestyles that have placed them in similar niches and thus, pushed them into direct competition with each other.

Yes, technically, the SEOH has developed more of a nocturnal habit and the NOHA is more active in the day. However, both species are highly crepuscular (active near dawn and dusk) and the SEOW is one of the most diurnal owl species, routinely hunting during daylight hours. They also use the same prey sources – primarily feeding on small rodents like mice and voles in winter. Additionally, both species have similar hunting strategies of flying low over the prairies, meadows and agricultural fields, using both their keen sight and hearing to locate their favorite scuffling mammals.

As the NOHA arrives, the SEOW leaps from its perch with catch in claw.

On average, harriers are roughly 25% larger than the SEOW but the wingspan of both species is nearly identical. Short-eared Owls use this increased wing area to their advantage with increased maneuverability. They can find themselves on the menu of NOHA but this is a much more challenging prey for the harriers who usually prefer their acts of kleptoparasitism (stealing another’s food).

This female NOHA rushes in talons first with her eyes on the prize.

After spending dozens of hours this season watching these two species forage across these grasslands of Lincoln County, MO I can attest that both species are terrific hunters. However, I think it’s safe to say that the SEOW has the higher success rate. They were not successful every time they plunged into the vegetation but more often than not, we saw these birds rising with a recently departed vole or mouse in their beak or claws.

An observation I found interesting is that when the SEOW made a successful kill, they almost always would fly a short distance and either eat it on the wing or, more often, would land in a new place to consume. I can only speculate that they do this because they think the act of catching the prey may alert would-be kleptoparasites and they move with the prey to get a better idea of who may be watching. On the other hand, it could be argued that this action could make it more obvious that they have had a successful kill and potentially ring the diner bell. Here is another interesting question.

Moment of impact. We can’t say for certain what happened here but I like to think the NOHA put one foot on the prey and one directly in the owl’s chest. Note that each bird pulls their head and delicate eyes as far from their opponents weapons as they can.

It’s a complicated relationship, for sure. I do not know for certain, but I would anticipate that the NOHA gets a significant portion of their caloric needs from the SEOW – or at least in this particular setting. As I mentioned earlier, the SEOW are so successful, it appears they can take this loss with little significant impact – or at least in a setting such as this with ample rodent populations. It may be a completely different scenario when they find themselves in a less productive area.

Caught in the act. I was very happy to have caught a frame that shows a foot of each bird on the vole at the same time.

On numerous occasions, Miguel and I watched as the SEOW took a much more aggressive and territorial stand. They were much more likely to pick a specific area that they foraged in and defended, often chasing NOHA and other SEOW away from their lands. NOHA, on the other hand, appear to cruise much more at random.

There is nothing particularly noteworthy ethologically speaking about this image. I just liked the shape of the SEOW with wings and tailfeathers spread and backlit by the low-hanging sun.

I have read that others have documented the swings in the numbers of SEOW from year to year and location to location based on the availability of prey. It is also well known that the SEOW is one of the most migratory of owl species. In the years we have followed these birds in Lincoln County, we can attest to this. If not already done, it would be really interesting to see the results of an in-depth look at the population dynamics and migration patterns of the SEOW and determine what role, if any, the NOHA may play.

The NOHA has its meal and the owl will likely have another for itself in little time.

Finally, I tapped into the inner comic writer in me and produced this silly little GIF that personifies the above interaction. I apologize if I offended anyone with my bad attempt at using a Cockney accent for the “villain” of this story… 😉

The Short-eared Owl – More In Flight Shots

The Short-eared Owl is a unique flyer. Birder and author Pete Dunne described them as a “…pale beer keg on wings.” Just as apt, but completely different, many have described their flight as like that of a moth, with long, straight wings that give a buoyant and unpredictable pattern that is often mixed with long periods of gliding. They have the tools of a successful hunter and although they lack the speed and power of their neighbors – the Northern Harriers, their ability to fly agilely and without making a sound, allows them to pick up their rodent prey without much apparent effort.

Short-eared Owl – In Flight Shots and Some Natural History

As you know by now, the Short-eared Owl does not nest in Missouri. It uses our state as a wintering ground and nests in the plains states and up into the tundra of Alaska and Canada. It does the same in conducive habitats in South America, Europe and Asia and is even found in Hawaii. In Missouri winters, these birds of prey feed primarily on voles, mice and other small mammals but, in the summer, they expand their diets to include almost anything they can catch including arthropods, birds, reptiles and amphibians.