Helenium virginicum (Virginia Sneezeweed)

The Virginia Sneezeweed is a Missouri state endangered and federally threatened species of Helenium, first discovered outside of Virginia, by our own Julian Steyermark. I photographed these in August, 2020 at Tingler Prairie N.A. I encourage you to read this great article by Bridget Macdonald to read more of the story of this plant.

Through extensive searching and reintroduction efforts, there are now more than 60 known populations of Helenium virginicum (Virginia Sneezeweed) found in Missouri.

Swamp Metalmark (Calephelis muticum) – Larvae

I previously shared photos of adult of swamp metalmark (Calephelis muticum). This spring, after a couple or three years of looking for them on their host plant, Cirsium muticum (swamp thistle), I finally found the caterpillar of this vulnerable species of conservation concern.

A swamp metalmark (Calephelis muticum) caught shortly after depositing some frass created from its host plant, Cirsium muticum (swamp thistle).

Astranthium ciliatum (Western Daisy)

This fantastic little one is the western daisy (Astranthium ciliatum) that we found at Middle Fork Barrens Natural Area. In the xeric, shallow soils of the barrens this daisy was single-stemmed and and no more than 6″ off the ground. If only they would behave like this in the home garden! Their range is centered in Oklahoma and Arkansas although they can be found in southwestern Missouri. These were beautiful little plants and rank up with my favorites in the family.

Astranthium ciliatum, or western daisy, is a spring-blooming member of the Asteraceae.

Missouri Orchids – Liparis liliifolia – Large Twayblade

Today’s orchid, Liparis liliifolia, (large twayblade, purple twayblade, lily-leaved twayblade, mauve sleekwort) is considered one of the most abundant in Missouri with quite a large range across the state. They have the potential to be found almost anywhere in the state with moist to dry-mesic forests, but do need open spots with partial sun. This is a species that benefits from disturbances and clearings due to fire, tree falls and human activity like trails where they are most likely to be found.

Liparis liliifolia with its pair of fleshy basal leaves and flowering raceme that blooms from the bottom to the top.

Insects are the most obvious choice for pollinators, however, there have not been many recorded observations of specific efficacious visitors and more information is needed to determine what species are responsible for pollinating this species. There is no real fragrance associated with these flowers. The purplish translucent flowers have been hypothesized to attract flesh flies which might be efficient pollinators. The primary mode of reproduction seems to be vegetative via underground corms.

This male mosquito was observed feeding at the nectary of this Liparis liliifolia flower. However, he was too small to come into contact with the column and is not considered an efficacious pollinator.

The flowers are set in the typical 3-petals and 3-sepals configuration of the family. In this case, the lower petal, or “lip”, is mauve in color and translucent. The translucency was enhanced when the lip was wet. The two lateral petals are filiform, or worm-like. To me they resembled the nectar spurs found on some orchids, but these are not hollow and do not contain nectar. The three sepals are blade-like, with one facing straight upwards behind the column and two are lateral and underneath the lip. It would not be a stretch to say the entire flower might mimic some insect.

A young developing flower stalk of Liparis liliifolia next to flowering stalks and seed capsules of last year’s efforts.

The large twayblade is definitely an interesting Missouri orchid. I will look for these close to home in the coming years and perhaps get some photos of their pollinators visiting.

-OZB

Bizarre Creatures in My Garden

Here is a perfect example of ‘why native plants?’ in the home garden. This is the first year of our new native flower garden in front of our new house. This spring we spent a good deal of money and time getting the old exotic evergreen bushes out of the beds and planting a new garden consisting of mostly native forbs and a couple patches of grasses. After a long and cool spring, we are finally getting some heat units on these mostly gladey and xeric species and a few are starting to respond nicely.

These golden drops turned out to be eggs of a leaf-footed bug (Coreidae family)

During my daily deadheading of some flowering Coreopsis and other asters, I notice new things from time to time. The arthropods are beginning to come. Since the original razing of the land that this subdivision sets on some 45+ years ago, these plant and insect communities have undoubtedly been rare. While my 100 square feet of natives won’t likely make a big difference, hopefully more and more of us will ‘go native’

I originally noticed these eggs by observing this jumping spider. The concurrence is assumed accidental.

About a week ago, I noticed these golden drops on the leaf of a Liatris spicata (marsh blazing star). After taking a few photos in situ, I decided to collect the leaf and see what the hatch might be. I figured it was a hemipteran of some sort and after a little research, I narrowed it down to the Coreidae family, or ‘leaf-footed bugs.’ If you can identify these to any degree of higher specificity, please let me know.

Coreid nymphs within an hour of hatching.

After three or four days in a jar, all of a sudden the leaf was alive with the movement of spikey mechanisms. I took a few photos on their cradle leaf, then moved a few to a Coreopsis sp. bloom. Afterwards, I let them go to feed as they like on our plants, maybe to see them another day.

-OZB

Missouri Orchids – Calopogon oklahomensis – Oklahoma Grass Pink

The second new “Missouri” orchid I came across on Casey’s and my trip through Arkansas in May was the Calopogon oklahomensis, the Oklahoma Grass Pink. This is a sister species to C. tuberosus, the Grass Pink, and likewise has the odd non-resupinate flower, meaning the flower pedicle does not twist and the lip is on the top side of the flower, an odd arrangement for orchids. Whereas C. tuberosus prefers wet feet and is typically found in fens, wet meadows and prairies, C. oklahomensis prefers drier feet and is found in more mesic prairies, savannas and open woods.

Calopogon oklahomensis is ranked as globally vulnerable primarily due to habitat destruction across the southcentral United States.

The orchids seen here were photographed in a prairie in Prairie County, AR. This location was a real treat, with hundreds of orchids and a variety of colorations. I wish we could have spent more time here photographing all the variations, but there were miles to be driven yet on this day.

Colors of the Oklahoma Grass Pink at this location ranged from a deep pink-magenta to completely white (not pictured).
When photographing orchids in prairie situations be prepared to deal with harsh sun and windy situations.

-OZB

Tachinus fimbriatus (crab-like rove beetle)

Tachinus fimbriatus – who decomposes the decomposers?

This Tachinus fimbriatus, a member of the rove beetle family, Staphylinidae, was found and photographed in September, 2020 at Babler State Park in St. Louis Co, MO. Some consider the Staphylinidae the largest family of animals in North America with close to 5,000 species described in more than 500 genera. Most rove beetles are carnivorous and feed primarily upon invertebrates. However, many feed on decaying vegetation, especially as larvae. This adorable beetle is believed to feed primarily on rotting mushrooms.

Tachinus fimbriatus – a potential pet for the tiny home?

Cypripedium kentuckiense (Kentucky Lady’s Slipper)

I have one more lady’s slipper orchid to share this year. I cannot count this one for my Missouri orchid list, but it is one hell of a slipper. The Kentucky lady’s slipper (Cypripedium kentuckiense) has the largest bloom of any in the Cypripedium genus and has nice diversity in colors and patterns. This is an orchid of the southeastern U.S. It has not yet been documented in Missouri, but can be found in the contiguous states of Arkansas, Tennessee, Kentucky and Oklahoma. Casey and I found these with some help in May in the Ouachita Mountains of Arkansas.

Obolaria virginica (Virginia Pennywort)

It’s not only orchids that I have had the pleasure getting to know during the past few years. Having new botanically-minded friends, I have been able to find and get to know a number of other interesting and sometimes quite rare plants found in other families. Obolaria virginica, known as Virginia pennywort or pennywort gentian, is indeed in the Gentianaceae family (gentians). It is ranked as S2 (imperiled) in Missouri, likely due to the small number of populations found here. This plant emerges very early and is much like a typical spring ephemeral. Like the coralroot orchids (Corallorhiza sp.), this plant is mycoheterotrophic, getting at least some of its nutrients by parasitizing microrrhizal fungi.

The diminutive Obolaria virginica (Virginia Pennywort) has been reported from only three Missouri counties in the southeastern portion of the state.

Cypripedium candidum (Small White Lady’s Slipper)

The conservation status of Cypripedium candidum, the small white lady’s slipper, is currently ranked as S1 (critically imperiled) by the Missouri Natural Heritage Program.

I have one more lady’s slipper we found in May to share. Cypripedium candidum or small white lady’s slipper requires moist and full-sun exposures, such as may be found in wet prairies, meadows, fens and forest edges. The reason for its rare status (likely found on fewer than five locations in the state) is due to habitat disturbance and orchid poachers digging them up for horticultural uses.

A small bunch of small white lady’s slippers

This species can hybridize with C. parviflorum (yellow lady’s slipper) when found in close proximity. This can potentially be a conservation concern in some states, but to my knowledge, there are no close associations between these two species in Missouri.

The habitat where these slippers where found in Shannon County, MO. You will not be able to see them, but I assure you, there are slippers in this photo.

It was wonderful finding this and the other lady’s slippers in the state this year. I’m hoping this one can still be found here far into the future.

The rare Cypripedium candidum

OZB